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Exploring today's technology for tomorrow's possibilities
A Computer Travel Guide to Canada's Provinces

A Computer Travel Guide to Canada's Provinces

Canada's landmass covers more than ten million square kilometres and is bordered by three oceans. The Atlantic Ocean forms the country's eastern border, the Arctic Ocean forms the northern border, and the Pacific Ocean establishes most of the country's western boundary. Canada's southern boundary is its shared border with the United States. Canada is the second-largest country in the world, with a population of around 34 million. The majority of Canadians dwell in urban areas, but there are also significant populations who live in rural areas and small towns.

The Regions of Canada

Canada, like the United States, operates as a federal state. The country has a variety of geographic areas and five regions. Those regions are the Atlantic Provinces, Central Canada, Prairie Provinces, West Coast, and Northern Territories. The territories vary widely in terms of population. The Northern Territories are made up of about one-third of Canada's total land area but populated by only about 100,000 people. Meanwhile, more than half of all Canadians live in the Central Canada region.

The National Capital

Canada's capital city is Ottawa. Queen Victoria (great-great-grandmother of Queen Elizabeth II) chose the location on the banks of the Ottawa River as the site for the Canadian capital back in 1857. Along with serving as the nation's capital, Ottawa is also the country's fourth-largest metropolis. The 4,700 square kilometres around Ottawa have been named the National Capital Region to preserve the area's natural geography and historic buildings.

  • National Capital Commission: The National Capital Commission hosts events, offers a variety of newsletters, and gives visitation information for a variety of natural and human-made attractions around Ottawa.

Provinces and Territories

Canada consists of three territories and ten provinces. Each territory or province has a capital city. The Northern Territories consist of Nunavut, the Northwest Territories, and the Yukon Territory. The West Coast region consists solely of British Columbia. Ontario and Quebec make up the Central Canada region. The Atlantic Provinces include Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Newfoundland and Labrador.


Alberta is one of Canada's three prairie provinces and is also one of Canada's two provinces with no coastline. Its southern border is shared with the U.S. state of Montana. The capital city of Alberta is Edmonton. The provincial flag was adopted in 1968 and consists of the province's shield on a blue background. The province has an official flower, tree, and bird. They are the wild rose, lodgepole pine, and great horned owl.

  • Travel Alberta: Hiking: Due to its location, which includes a portion of the Rocky Mountains, Alberta offers a wide variety of hiking opportunities, including winter hiking and heli-hiking.

British Columbia

British Columbia is located between the Rocky Mountains and the Pacific Ocean. It is Canada's westernmost province and the third most populated province in the country. The capital city is Victoria, named for Queen Victoria. However, the largest city in the province is Vancouver. The official bird is the Steller's jay, while the official flower is the Pacific dogwood. The current flag was adopted in 1960 and contains a version of the Royal Union Flag with a crown placed in the centre. Underneath is a setting sun, representing the province's Western location.

  • Royal BC Museum: The Royal BC Museum was founded in 1886, while the official archives were founded in 1894. The museum and archives merged in 2003 and now function as one of Canada's greatest cultural icons.


Manitoba is at the geographic centre of Canada and is the nation's fifth most populated province. Winnipeg is the capital city. It's one of the three prairie provinces. Indigenous people have lived here for millennia. The flag features a Red Ensign combined with the provincial coat of arms. It was adopted in 1965. The great grey owl is the official bird of Manitoba, while the prairie crocus is the official flower.

  • Manitoba's Indigenous Connections: The Manitoba Museum acknowledges the original inhabitants of the land that is now Manitoba and the history and contributions of indigenous Manitobans.

New Brunswick

New Brunswick is the only Canadian province with two official languages: French and English. It's one of the Atlantic provinces and also one of the Maritime provinces. Fredericton is the capital, while Saint John and Moncton are the largest cities in the province. New Brunswick's official flower is the purple violet, while the black-capped chickadee is the province's official bird. Adopted in 1965, the flag has a top third featuring a golden lion against a red background, while the lower two-thirds are occupied by wavy white and blue lines overlapped by a gold field with a galley ship imposed over the top.

  • Acadian Shores Road Trip: From Shediac to the city of Bathurst, this seven-day trip exposes travellers to saltwater beaches, national parks, and local restaurants.

Newfoundland and Labrador

Newfoundland and Labrador is Canada's easternmost province and is located in the Atlantic region of the country. Around 94% of the population of the province lives on the island of Newfoundland. The more sparsely populated Labrador is located on the mainland. The largest city, St. John, also serves as the capital of the province. The province was previously known as Newfoundland; the current name of Newfoundland and Labrador was adopted in 2001. The flag was designed in 1980 by Christopher Pratt, a local artist. The design is modelled on indigenous jewellery motifs and the Union Jack. The blue parts of the flag represent the water of the region, the white symbolizes the ice and snow, the red stands for human effort, and the gold shows the confidence the populace holds in the future of the province. The pitcher plant is the official flower of Newfoundland and Labrador, while the Atlantic puffin is the official bird.

Nova Scotia

Nova Scotia is a Maritime province. Its name is derived from the Latin for New Scotland. It's the most populated of the Atlantic provinces. The capital is Halifax, which is also the most populated Atlantic province city. The provincial flag was adopted in 1929 and is modelled after the provincial coat of arms. The design consists of an inverted Scotland flag with the royal arms of Scotland at the centre. Although officially adopted as the provincial flag in 1929, the design was in use as a pennant since the 1850s. The official flower is the mayflower, while Nova Scotia's official bird is the osprey.

  • Canada's Original Wine Region: Nova Scotia is home to a wine country near the ocean and full of interesting grape types and wines to try. Many wineries are open to visitors.


Ontario is the most populated Canadian province. More than 38% of Canadians live in this province. Ottawa, the Canadian capital, is located in the province, but the provincial capital is Toronto. The flag of Ontario, like that of Manitoba, uses the Red Ensign coupled with the provincial coat of arms. The common loon is Ontario's official bird, while the white trillium is the official flower.

Prince Edward Island

Prince Edward Island's flag incorporates a heraldic lion taken from the coat of arms of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent, for whom the province was named. The three counties of the province are symbolized by three small saplings under a great oak. The oak tree represents Great Britain.

  • Anne of Green Gables: Lucy Maud Montgomery's classic novels are set on Prince Edward Island, and there are many places for fans of her novels to visit on the island.


Quebec is the largest Canadian province by landmass and the second-largest province by population. The population is largely gathered in the cities located near the St. Lawrence River. The biggest city in the province is Montreal, but the capital is Quebec City. The flag is white and blue with four fleurs-de-lis. The official language is French, the official bird is the snowy owl, and the official flower is the blue flag iris.

  • Historic District of Old Quebec: UNESCO named the historic district of Quebec a World Heritage site because it's an outstanding example of a fortified colonial city.


Saskatchewan is a prairie province in the western portion of Canada. The capital city is Regina. The flag is yellow and green and features a coat of arms and a prairie lily. The western red lily on the flag is also the province's official flower. The official bird is the sharp-tailed grouse.

Community Histories: Find local histories of all communities in the province here.


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