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Course number U3727S
Length 5 days
Delivery method Instructor-led training (ILT)
Onsite dedicated training (OST)
Price USD $4,000
*Courses are supported in the delivery formats above, but are not necessarily scheduled in every delivery format listed. Please click the schedule links at the top of the page to see which delivery formats are currently scheduled.

Course overview

This 5-day, hands-on, lecture/lab course presents OpenVMS performance under three subsystems: memory management, I/O, and CPU.


Students should have a fundamental understanding of system management and be able to:

  • Set up accounts
  • Use SYSGEN/SYSMAN to change a system parameter.
  • Run AUTOGEN.
  • Use the INSTALL utility.
  • INITIALIZE and MOUNT a disk.

Students should also have a fundamental understanding of programming concepts, including:

  • Understanding the purpose of a compiler.
  • Understanding the purpose of a linker.
  • Understanding how a computer executes a program.


OpenVMS system managers, applications programmers, and system programmers.

Ways to save

Benefits to you

Upon completing this course, students should be able to:

  • Interpret performance metrics supplied by:
    • The MONITOR utility.
    • DCL commands including: SHOW SYSTEM SHOW.
    • The INSTALL utility.
  • Identify bottlenecks in the following subsystems:
    • Memory Management.
    • I/O.
    • CPU.
  • Size working set parameters.
  • Monitor page file space.
  • Describe the advantages of balancing disk I/O.
  • Improve the performance characteristics of indexed files using the CONVERT utility.
  • Identify factors contributing to time spent executing in processor modes.
  • Describe file locking design considerations to attain good performance.
  • Monitor distributed lock traffic and impact its performance.
  • Identify the impact of changing key system parameters.

Next Steps

  • TCP/IP Services for HP OpenVMS U3728S

Course Objective

Students attending this course should leave with an understanding of:

  • How to isolate performance bottlenecks to one of the three subsystems.
  • The effects of SYSGEN parameters on each of the subsystems, when to change these parameters, and when other management modifications or the purchase of new hardware will be required.
  • Sufficiency (keeping the system running), as well as tuning considerations.
  • The relative merits/drawbacks of using AUTOGEN
Students attending this course should not expect to work with network performance or to find a magic system parameter that will make their system run faster.

Detailed Course Outline

General Performance Topics

  • Module Outline.
  • Performance Issues.
  • Performance Bottlenecks.
  • OpenVMS Performance Metrics.
  • OpenVMS Performance Tools.

Layout of Virtual Address Space

  • Module Outline.
  • Layout of Virtual Address Space (VAX, Alpha, I64).
  • Address Space.
  • OpenVMS Alpha Memory Management.
  • P0 Space Contents.
  • P1 Space Layout.
  • System Space Layout (Alpha, I64).
  • System Space.
  • S0/S1 Space.
  • Monitoring Pool.
  • Nonpaged Pool Reclamation.
  • Pool Zones.
  • Lock Manager Use of Pool Zones.

Image Activation and Paging

  • Module Outline.
  • Paging Compared to Swapping.
  • Address Translation.
  • Page Faults.
  • Locating Pages in Virtual Memory.
  • Producing an Image File.
  • Image Activation and Paging.
  • Image Activation.
  • Free Page List.
  • Valid Pages and the Working Set List.
  • Free List Fault Rate.
  • Modified List Fault Rate.
  • Secondary Hard Faults.

Interpreting Paging Metrics

  • Module Outline.
  • Sample Display from $Monitor Page.
  • Interpreting the $Monitor Page Display.
  • Interpreting Paging Metrics.
  • $SHOW MEMORY (Alpha, I64).
  • $MONITOR Page.

Working Sets and Automatic Working Set Adjustment

  • Module Outline.
  • Working Set List.
  • Working Set Size vs. Working Set List Size.
  • Parameters Affecting the Working Set List Size.
  • Automatic Working Set Adjustment.
  • Working Set Performance Considerations.
  • AWSA Performance Considerations.
  • AWSA Parameters.

Locality and Paging Performance

  • Module Outline.
  • Locality.
  • Locality Issues.
  • Effects of Poor Locality.
  • Effect of Improving Locality.

Shared Image Cost and Benefits

  • Module Outline.
  • Shared Image Costs and Benefits.
  • Image Activation and Paging.
  • Linking Shareable Images.
  • Alpha & I64 Resident Images.
  • Shared Address Data.

The Modified Page List and Modified Page Writing

  • Module Outline.
  • Modified Page List.
  • Modified Page List Parameters and Metrics.
  • Modified Page List Performance Considerations.
  • MPL Performance and Analysis.
  • Page File Exhaustion.
  • Modified Page Writer Parameter Relationships.

The Swapper and Memory Reclamation

  • Module Outline.
  • The Swapper and Memory Reclamation.
  • Free Page List Parameter Relationships.

General I/O Flow

  • Module Outline.
  • General I/O Flow.
  • Geometry of Disks.
  • Time-Based Components of a Disk Transfer.
  • Optimization of Disk Operations.
  • Virtual I/O Cache.
  • Extended File Cache (XFC).
  • XFC SYSGEN Parameters.
  • Permanent vs. Dynamic XFC Cache Size.
  • Monitoring the XFC.
  • Monitoring Volume Activity.
  • Monitoring File Activity.
  • Cache Control.
  • Resetting Cache Counters.

Analyzing the Effects of Fragmentation

  • Module Outline.
  • Determining I/O Rates.
  • Dump of Header for X.Dat.
  • Effect of Making File Contiguous.
  • Effect of Making Both Files Contiguous.
  • Using Multiple Spindles.

Controller Optimizations

  • Module Outline.
  • Controller Optimizations.
  • Locating Bottlenecks.
  • Other Optimizatons Through Layered Products.
  • RAID.

Files-11 ODS-2 Concepts

  • Module Outline.
  • Files-11 Terminology.
  • Directory Concepts.
  • File Open Operation.

Contiguity and the File System

  • Module Outline.
  • Contiguity and the File System.
  • Window Turns.
  • Preventing Fragmentation.
  • Split Transfers.
  • Window Turns Versus Split Transfers.
  • Accessing Sequential Files.
  • Accessing Files Randomly.

File System Caches

  • Module Outline.
  • File System Caches.
  • $MONITOR File.
  • Shared and Private Caches.
  • Checking for Shrunken Caches.

RMS Structures and Design Considerations

  • Module Outline.
  • RMS File Concepts.
  • Summary of RMS File Organizations.
  • File Structures.
  • Indexed File Organization for a File with No Alternate Keys.
  • RMS Interfaces for Affecting File Structure.
  • Bucket Splits.
  • Indexed File Growth.
  • Factors Affecting Bucket Splits.
  • Duplicate Keys for Data Records.
  • Compression.

RMS Utilities

  • Module Outline.
  • File Definition Language.
  • Techniques for Creating Data Files Using an FDL File.
  • Creating a Data File from an FDL File.
  • Optimizing RMS Indexed Files.
  • Examining File Structures.
  • Example Using RMS Utilities to Tune an Indexed File Structure.
  • Example Testing Random Access of Indexed Files.

RMS I/O Buffering Considerations

  • Module Outline.
  • Buffers and Buckets.
  • Design Considerations.
  • Multiblock Count Example.
  • Read Ahead/Write Behind.
  • Deferred Write.
  • Setting Up Multiple Buffers.
  • Determining the Number of Local Buffers.
  • Global Buffers.

Monitor RMS

  • Module Outline.
  • MONITOR RMS Example.

Understanding CPU Performance

  • Module Outline.
  • CISC vs. RISC Architectures.
  • Understanding CPU Performance.
  • VAX Alignment Considerations Example.
  • Data Alignment Issues.
  • Nonaligned Data Example.
  • Nonaligned and Compiler Aligned Data Sample Runs.
  • Aligned Data Example.
  • Badly Aligned Macro Example.
  • Well Aligned Macro Example.
  • C Code with Bad Alignment.
  • C Small Data Accesses Issues.
  • C Code with Good Alignment.
  • Debugger Issues.
  • Using the Break/Unaligned Debugger Option.
  • CPU Performance and Symmetric Multiprocessing.
  • Galaxy Performance Options.
  • Galaxy Computing Model.
  • Galaxy Shared Everything Model.
  • CPU Migration Under Galaxy.
  • Sample CPU Migration Using DCL.
  • CPU Controls Using DCL.

Understanding Time Spent in Modes

  • Module Outline.
  • OpenVMS Access Modes.
  • Interrupt Stack/State Time.
  • Sample $MONITOR TIMER.
  • Impact of High Timer Service Rate.
  • MP Synchronization Time.
  • Dedicated CPU Lock Manager.
  • Dedicated CPU Lock Manager Interaction.
  • Dedicated CPU Lock Manager Examples.
  • Impact of the Dedicated CPU Lock Manager.
  • Dedicated CPU Lock Manager Litmus Test.
  • Idle Time.
  • Examining Time Spent in Access Modes.
  • Compatibility Mode Time.
  • Analyzing Time Spent in Modes.

OpenVMS Scheduling and Priorities

  • Module Outline.
  • Quantum and CPU Time.
  • Priorities.
  • Waiting States.
  • States of Concern.
  • Class Scheduler.
  • Class Scheduler Example.

Locking Concepts

  • Module Outline.
  • Locking Concepts.
  • Other Characteristics of Locks.
  • Application Design and Locking Performance.
  • Locking Considerations.
  • Record Options in RAB for Locking Shared Files.
  • Sample $MONITOR LOCK/Local Buffers.
  • $MONITOR LOCK Display (Global Buffers).
  • Interpreting the $MONITOR LOCK Display.
  • Lock Manager Parameters.
  • Global Buffers.
  • Global Buffer Read-mode Bucket Locking.
  • RMS Contention Policies.
  • Setting RMS Contention Policies.
  • No Query Locking.

Distributed Locking Concepts

  • Module Outline.
  • Distributed Locking Concepts.
  • LOCKDIRWT and PE1.
  • PE1 Processing.
  • Sample $MONITOR RLOCK.
  • Lock Tree Inbound Example.
  • Higher Activity Example.
  • Higher LOCKDIRWT Example.
  • Performance Issues with Distributed Locking.
  • Distributed Locking Example.

The MSCP Server

  • Module Outline.
  • MSCP Server.
  • Interpreting $MONITOR MSCP.